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Thread: Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting)

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    Exclamation Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting)

    Salam/Hi,

    I am posting some very useful tips and techniques for bikers. I hope that they will be beneficial for all of us. There are many experts here in PW, with respect i would like to welcome them to correct if there are any mistake so we should be "Educated Bikers".

    And any good information or Tips are welcomed here so If any one wants any GENERAL info about bikes this thread should do it ALL........

    Many thankS and Please Subscribe....

    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    Check the Oil Level
    Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - 12OilLevelIMG 8487Most bikes have clear windows with which to visually check engine oil level.


    After the engine has idled for about a minute, shut it off and wait another minute or so for the new oil to settle from the cylinder heads into the crankcase.

    Make sure the bike is perfectly level; if there is a rear stand attached to the bike, remove it so it rests flat on the ground. If the bike doesn't have a center stand, lift it off its kickstand so it sits up perfectly straight. Check the oil window on the side of the crankcase: if the oil is below the center line, top it off until it's perfectly centered. If it's already at the center, voila-- you've just successfully changed your oil!
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    now thats it with the motorcycle oil change... any questions ???
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    good job keep up the good work

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    wow, these are realy some good things, thank you very much
    The great minds will never ask too many whys, he will just visit www.chpbike.com.

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    @syedhasan92110
    what chain lubricator to be used???? (old drained / Ganda mobil oil is a common practice by our machanics)
    can it be clean by WD40 or Deiesel etc???

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    Quote Originally Posted by tigerride View Post
    @syedhasan92110
    what chain lubricator to be used???? (old drained / Ganda mobil oil is a common practice by our machanics)
    can it be clean by WD40 or Deiesel etc???
    For the best motorcycle chain lubricant, I would recommend you
    to use the 'chain lube' type which comes in a spray can. It's
    easy to apply and quick to lubricate,
    If there's no suitable lubricant around, you can still use any
    motor oil of 20w/50 type which will still do the job fine. Buy a new engine oil bottle like Total, Askari etc... and use it as lubricator
    You can also find some good chain lubes in Heavy bike shops but as said above its ok with our bike chains as they dont go under much tension so that we have to use wax or any other EXPENSIVE lubricant.
    NEVER use WD40 for cleaning your bike chain or other greasy parts, it can be used to clean the chain if it has got too much sand or other particles attached to your chain while driving, You should then clean your chain with WD40 let it dry and then lubricate it again properly, thats the only way you can use it with CHAINS
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    Nice effort Hassan!
    I hope this will be usefull to most of the bikers around there.
    One of the most difficult things in the world is to know how to do something, and to watch without comment, somebody else do it incorrectly.

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    Lightbulb Wet roads and bad weather offer some challenges

    Riding in the Rain and Wind


    Depending on your experience, skill, preparation and risk tolerance, riding a motorcycle in the rain can be anything from frightening to fun. In any case, it is at least more complicated, potentially more hazardous, and afterward, your bike will need a bath.
    Some riders avoid rain, but others, especially in areas with more annual rainfall, learn to deal with it. And odds are if you ride long and far enough, sooner or later you'll be confronted with it, willingly or not.

    If you think you may have to ride in rain, it helps if you think of it as essentially learning a whole new subset of skills. Accepting it, and seeing it as a challenge, not necessarily a threat can also help.
    And as alluded to, some riders actually like the rain. Nor are MotoGP races cancelled just because it's raining either, which proves rain is not an automatic no-go if you learn to work with the demands made on you and your machine.
    Covering up
    Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - 1rain0601
    If there is ever a time when most riders agree on the value of a full-face helmet, rain riding could be one. Raindrops sting at speed, and storm winds can blow larger things out of nowhere into your face.
    Having suitable clothing is also vital. Many rain suits work well, especially for lighter rain. Heavy precipitation will test any suit however, and even some expensive designs can let water creep in if you let it.
    Motorcyclist raingear has the extra job of fighting constant wind currents that want to flow in and around the suit. Any opening - collar, sleeve, or pant cuff - is an invitation for water to enter.
    For example, even if you have a watertight coat and gauntlet gloves, air pressure can drive rainwater down the gauntlets and into your sleeves. Some riders find tucking in the gloves works better for their setup, and others do OK as long as their adjustments are tight. The same goes around the neck. A high protruding collar or neck warmer can channel water in.
    If planning a long trip, you might want to test your gear on a rainy day close to home. Working out these issues can make the difference between actually getting along fine with rain, and cursing the day.
    And if you do get wet, whether it's warm or cooler will affect how you'll like it. If heading toward rain, wearing a base layer that insulates when wet - like polyester, fleece or wool - may help. When uncomfortable, you are distracted, and more likely to make mistakes. But it is during inclement weather that all the more focus is needed, so think of preparation as a word to the wise.
    Traction
    Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - 2rain0601
    Rainwater makes even clean pavement less grippy and simultaneously prevents your tires from warming up as quickly or as well.
    What's more, if it hasn't rained lately, accumulated dirt and oils will form a slippery film until they are washed off. This could take a while depending on how hard the rain is falling.
    And just as dry traction varies depending on the surface, so does wet. Some roads offer surprisingly good wet traction, and others surprisingly bad. It's your job to figure out which is which and everything in between!
    A way to test traction is to carefully and very briefly use the rear brake to the point of lock-up. This works in the dry too, and is a better-than-nothing gauge based on how easily your tire breaks loose. Do it on a flat part of the road - not on a crowned or cambered section, because the wheel will follow gravity and go out of line.
    Hazard zones include repaired, or tarred pavement, old slick asphalt, some concrete surfaces, debris washed onto the roadway, and intersections rippled or soaked with oil. Toll booths and concrete parking garages that get wet, but never washed clean can also be sketchy. And watch out for railroad or trolley tracks, metal grates, expansion joints, and plates, which grip like Teflon. Rail tracks hit on an angle can steer your front wheel and instantly put you down. Likewise painted crosswalks and lines can be very slick when wet, offer poor traction for cornering or braking, and it's best to run over them when you're vertical as well.
    Naturally, on wet roads lowered speeds, and careful movements are the watchwords. Keeping a relaxed body, and not a death grip on the bars also lets the bike do its thing. Progressively use the brakes. Take turns and accelerate smoothly. Going up a gear can help prevent spinning the rear wheel.
    Hydroplaning is less likely for a motorcycle's rounded tire than a car's, but the wider the tire, or the faster you go, the more you increase your chances of it happening. The sipes, or cuts in the treads, also need to be deep enough.
    Generally rain-oriented street tires have more sipes, and high performance street tires have fewer. Where sport tires may partially overcome this otherwise handicap is the quality of their compounds. Just as in the dry, softer rubber offers better traction than harder compounds.
    Vision and visibility
    In lieu of wipers, Rain-X helps on the outside of the face shield, especially at speed. Some sort of anti-fog may help on the inside. At lower speeds fogging and rain buildup are more likely. Ratcheting the shield up a notch helps vent, and if you absolutely can't see through the rain, raising it so you can see either through or under it may do the trick at low speed.
    Eyewear with yellow or orange lenses may also help your visual acuity, especially for daytime rain riding.
    If you have a fairing windshield, it should not be so high that you can't peer over it. Think about trimming or replacing it if you can't.
    Hi-visibility colors and reflective bits are better than black or neutral colors without reflection. If you fell on the road, you would want to be easily identifiable as a human, not a piece of tarp or invisible.
    Carve out a place
    Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - 3rain0601
    Try to maintain a safe following distance, and get away from drivers who want to tailgate. Sadly, many drivers who tend to follow too closely will not suddenly amend their ways in the rain. A trick that may or may not work is to look back for a moment, and put an open hand up to the tailgating driver. An alternate to this is to make a one-handed pushing motion. Other riders find waving their hand back and forth, while reaching behind, works. Some drivers may not realize they are risking a person's life until you assertively but politely wake them up to this reality.
    Thunderstorms
    It is not advisable to ride if you are where lightning is striking. Riders have been killed or knocked unconscious while riding in lightning. The lucky ones wake up in a ditch. According to NASA, Florida has twice as many lightning-caused deaths and injuries than any other state. Other states with a high incidence of lightning strikes are Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Colorado and Texas. July is the peak month for lightning.
    Wind
    A motorcycle is like a little sail. Full fairings and lighter bikes are especially susceptible to side winds. Be prepared to have to lean into the crosswind just to stay upright. But if leaning into the breeze, also be ready to compensate if the crosswind abruptly stops. Alternately, some riders have been known to parallel cars or larger vehicles to let them block extreme crosswinds. Be careful not to ride in anyone's blind spot though, if you try this.
    Conclusion
    A lot about how your rain riding experience goes is up to you. If, however, you are caught in a situation you feel is too much to handle, find the nearest safe spot to pull over. Otherwise, proactively teaching yourself to ride in the rain pushes back your fear threshold. Panic is the common denominator of all sorts of rider-induced crashes, so thinking about what you are doing, learning as you go, and not riding beyond the capacity of you or your machine is key.
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    Smile

    Quote Originally Posted by daniyalahmad View Post
    Nice effort Hassan!
    I hope this will be usefull to most of the bikers around there.
    Many Thanks daniyal , i always need appreciation from brothers like you.
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    ok my dear fellows now all the visitors here are CHALLENGED !!!!
    Answer tho these questions below but remember answers should be in organized way e.g.
    1. (a)
    2. (z).....

    Last date of submitting answers id till 18 August 2011....
    Fry your heads and put in some brain masala.....
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    Question Kon Banay Ga Crore Pati

    Riding a motorcycle safely and in control means not just better bike handling; it also means judging road conditions. No matter what your experience level, riding on busy roads – which often have poor surfaces – can challenge any rider.
    According to the Motorcycle Safety Foundation and other instructors, the best attitude to adopt is to become a “life long learner.” Enrolling in a rider’s class from time to time, as well as proactive self-learning are healthy continuing education habits to get into.
    With experience, riders learn the importance of scanning the road, and they develop greater awareness of conditions as they ride, including ability to estimate traction, which has been described as “reading” types of pavement.


    Gauging traction is critical! With only two thin tires, it is more important for riders than drivers of four-wheelers.
    Recognizing when clean pavement is slick, or offers average traction, or is especially grippy, as well as noticing if it is littered with sand, gravel, oil increases chances for safety and control.
    .
    Rider error was the cause of about two-thirds of all single-vehicle accidents. The typical error was a “slideout” or a fall due to over braking or running wide on a curve due to excess speed or under cornering.
    Road Conditions Rider Quiz:
    Answers Below
    1. If you are caught riding in strong or severe winds, you should:
    a) Steer away from the wind so it pushes you safely.
    b) Steer into the wind as much as possible.
    c) Keep a good grip on the handlebars, a firm planting of your feet on the pegs and keeping your arms and shoulders flexible.
    d) A and C.
    e) B and C.
    2. If it is wet or raining, when using the brakes, it is best to:
    a) Pump both brakes alternately.
    b) Pump the front, and lightly tapping the rear.
    c) Use only the back brake, not touching the front brake.
    d) Use both brakes like normal, as long as you are straight up and down.
    e) Use both brakes carefully, progressively and smoothly.
    3. If riding on gravel-strewn roads:
    a) Slightly accelerate to better accommodate clearing the gravel.
    b) Slow down as needed.
    c) Meander back and forth to dodge the bulk of the gravel if you can.
    d) Never use the brakes.
    e) Carefully use the brakes.
    f) A and D.
    g) B and E.
    4. When riding on gravelly road surfaces, you should:
    a) Watch the front wheel closely.
    b) Keep your eyes up looking ahead to where you want to go.
    c) Increase your speed slightly.
    d) Decrease your speed slightly as needed.
    e) B and D
    f) A and C.
    5. When attempting to slow on a straight section of gravelly road, you should:
    a) Use only the back brakes.
    b) Use both brakes gently.
    c) Pump the brakes.
    d) Don’t use the brakes at all.
    6. When cornering and you realize you are on sandy or graveled road surface:
    a) Straighten up and go into the other lane as long as no cars are coming.
    b) Try to steer sharply and avoid the gravel.
    c) Try not to use the brakes.
    d) Gently use the brakes.
    7. If you see a pothole coming:
    a) Slam on the brakes so you don’t hit it too hard.
    b) Swerve as hard as you can.
    c) Steer around it if you can, and if you can’t avoid it, hit it as squarely as possible.
    d) Speed up so you will clear it better.
    e) Stand up and pull back slightly on the handlebars to lighten the front end.
    f) Either C or E, depending on circumstances.
    8. The following usually offers the best grip:
    a) Weathered and oily asphalt.
    b) New asphalt.
    c) Old dry asphalt.
    d) Concrete.
    e) Could be either B or C.
    9. If you have to make a swift evasive turn left, at speed, you:
    a) Press hard on the right grip.
    b) Press hard on the left grip.
    c) You lean left hard and do not press the bars either way.
    d) You press on the right grip, and lean left as well as you can.
    10. When riding after dark, the following is the best all around advice for safety:
    a) Never exceed the speed limit.
    b) Slow down below the speed limit.
    c) Ride normally.
    d) Do not outrun your headlights.
    e) Do not ride after dark unless you absolutely have to.
    11. If it starts to rain:
    a) Find a bridge and pull under it.
    b) If there are no bridges, pull over and seek shelter if you can.
    c) At least slow down, especially in the first 10 to 30 minutes to allow the road to get “washed” clean.
    d) Don’t do anything different than if it were dry.
    12. In worn out, rutted asphalt at intersections:
    a) The center third of the lane is most slippery and oily and so you should stay either to the right or left third.
    b) Even though it is more oily, the center is less worn, and statistically the safest pavement.
    c) It makes no difference which third you ride as long as you are careful.
    13. If you hit a big piece of debris on the road:
    a) You should take the bike to a motorcycle shop for them to inspect it.
    b) You should schedule an oil change.
    c) If you don’t hear any strange noises, check the bike after the ride.
    d) Pull over and inspect the bike’s tires, and undercarriage, etc.
    14. Generally, which could potentially be more hazardous while riding:
    a) A front flat tire because steering will be most affected.
    b) A rear flat tire because when the bike is upset, you usually want to use the rear brake, but can’t.
    c) It makes no difference, both tires are equally important.
    15. When crossing railroad tracks:
    a) Accelerate slightly, while hitting them at a slight angle, if possible.
    b) Attempt to hit them square, and accelerate as you approach them.
    c) Ride over them like normally, and don’t worry, modern motorcycle tires easily cross them, and it is no longer necessary to exercise caution.
    d) Attempt to cross the tracks approaching at a 90-degree angle under normal power, or a little slower if possible.
    16. When crossing the occasional "metal grate" bridge:
    a) If you speed up a little, it actually smoothes out the ride.
    b) Never attempt to cross a metal grate bridge because studies show they are usually too slippery and could cause a fall.
    c) As you approach, slow down as much as practical, neither on the gas, nor on the brakes, and ride it out as straight up and down as you can.
    d) You must be very careful on these types of bridges. Even in dry conditions they can be slippery, and they are extremely slippery when wet.
    e) B and D
    f) C and D
    17. If road construction crews are re-routing traffic:
    a) There is no cause for concern; construction managers are licensed by federal highway safety officials, and know how to safely divert traffic safely.
    b) It is advisable to avoid construction re-routes. Riders have been injured and killed, and you should avoid construction zones any time it is possible.
    c) Slow down, use the front and rear brakes gently as you come near, and ride within the posted construction zone speed limits, using caution.
    d) Slow down, use the front and rear brakes gently as you come near, and ride 10 mph below posted construction zone speed limits. Do not worry if motorists seem impatient.
    18. What is the best way to handle roadways in process of being resurfaced that have been "chewed up," or made rough by a roadway surface removal machine?
    a) Stop, and find a way to turn around. Do not ride on these surfaces.
    b) Slow down to a speed about half the posted speed limit, and take your time getting through. Do not let tailgating cars concern you.
    c) Absolutely do not use the brakes on these surfaces.
    d) Use the front sparingly, concentrating on the rear brake on these surfaces
    e) Ride slower, stay calm, and treat as rain grooves. Use both brakes carefully and be aware that the handlebars might oscillate from side to side which will get worse with higher speeds.
    19. If you encounter long sections of patched or repaired pavement:
    a) Try to stay on the new, patched sections.
    b) Do not ride on the new, patched sections.
    c) Ride wherever it looks smoothest, as long as you are steady, not meandering too much. Don’t ride along the seams between old and new sections.
    d) It does not matter what line you take. Road crews must do repairs within inspected standards.
    e) Avoid patched sections. If you have to stop, and turn around, it's OK.
    20. When crossing large swaths of painted markings (such as crossways, etc.):
    a) Use extreme caution. Stop and turn around if possible.
    b) These painted sections are super slippery when wet, and while rideable, should be avoided if possible.
    c) These sections are not as slippery as some think because they have sand mixed in with the paint for traction.
    d) Use the brakes as normal to gently slow down to 15-20 mph below the limit, and otherwise do not worry about the painted sections.
    e) Make sure you are as close to vertical as possible. If you need to use the brakes while crossing through the painted road, use them gently. When wet, these surfaces are more slippery, but rideable.
    21. Regarding "edges traps" some regions have cut into some of the shoulders of their roads, they:
    a) Are not a problem to modern motorcycles.
    b) Often times are not marked and especially hard to see in the dark.
    c) Can cause a crash if you try to re-enter the road from the shoulder and hit the edge at the wrong angle.
    d) Are usually well marked.
    e) B and C.
    f) A and D.
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    thats really strange, no one knows anything
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    ok i will keep on my good work
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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    Lightbulb Tips to avoid getting tired on a long ride

    1. If ears are plugged with cotton and a full face helmet with visor - you dont get tired soon.....as wind noise is lessNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - wink
    2. Take appropriate brakes/ stops, do not push yourself too hard on long runs
    3. Wear goggles/ use tinted visors during the noon time as bright sun light can also make you tired
    4. I somehow manage to ride longer distances comfortably at night compared to day
    5. Riding at 100kmph for ten mins continously is more stressful than riding at 80kmph for fifteen mins (of course distance travelled is lesser)
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

  16. #75
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    Lightbulb some more.....

    Avoid backpacks as they can be very heavy for your back...the added weight can contribute fatigue and severe backpain....use of saddlebags or tankbags can be done.

    Pump bottles by energy drinks rather than water. Use of Glucon-D can be done.

    Avoid wearing tight clothes. be it riding gear also....snug fit riding armour is ok but it shouldnt affect body movements... weight of riding gear is also important and should be checked before making purchase.

    Take ample of breaks....we are not in any type of race...be at ease!!!

    consumption of light food is essential before any trip...Light food does not mean you stuff your body with meat or even some wada pavNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrinNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrinNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrin. Have something light that is not oily neither heavy to digest!!!! Eg MaggiNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrin or even fruits! Lunch and dinner should be consumed at the required time only but ensure its not heavy that it puts you off to sleep when you tachometer and speedometer are working!!!!!

    Do stretch out your body after a stretch of 70-80 kms straight!!! kinda helps in good blood flowNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - smile

    Avoid hearing loud music all the time. You can pimp up your playlist with headbanging songs but use the volume button to keep it under level.Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - smileNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - smile Loud music might put you in position where you might not hear the rear vehicle honking for overtaking.

    Use of clear visors should be done. be it tinted or clear it shouldnt be scratched where your eyes are straining and dying to see the road ahead.

    Maintained a firm riding posture... showing off the hump to make bypassers feel that you riding a sbk not good!!!Nessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrinNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrinNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrinNessecary info and tips for bikers (Keep Posting) - biggrin Have seen so many off em on roads just to show off they have a freaking inline 4 with sporty seating posture.
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

  17. #76
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    Lightbulb Little informayion on Spark Plugs :)

    how come there is very little information on spark plugs here....

    I found some very useful info...

    Spark plugs have been around as long as internal combustion engines have, and are often a misunderstood component. This basic guide is designed to assist the technician, hobbyist, or race mechanic in understanding, using, and troubleshooting spark plugs.

    Spark plugs are a "window" into the engine, and can be a valuable diagnostic tool. The spark plug displays the condition inside the combustion chambers of the engine. The experienced tuner can use spark plugs to find the root cause of problems, determine air-fuel ratios, and to increase vehicle performance.

    Spark Plug Basics
    The primary function of the spark plug is to ignite the air/fuel mixture within the combustion chamber under any operating condition.

    Spark plugs must provide a path and a location for electrical energy from the ignition coil to create a spark used to ignite the air-fuel mixture. A sufficient amount of voltage must be supplied by the ignition system to spark across the spark plug gap. This is called “Electrical Performance.”

    The spark plug firing end temperature must be kept low enough to prevent pre-ignition, but high enough to prevent fouling. This is called “Thermal Performance”, and is determined by the heat range selected.

    Spark Plugs Heat Rating

    The spark plug heat range has no relationship to the electrical energy transferred through the spark plug. The heat range of a spark plug is the range in which the plug works well thermally. The heat rating of each spark plug is indicated by a number; lower numbers indicate a hotter type, higher numbers indicate a colder type.

    Heat rating and heat flow path of Spark Plugs


    Some basic structural factors affecting the heat range of a spark plug are:
    • Surface area and/or length of the insulator nose
    • Thermal conductivity of the insulator, center electrode, etc.
    • Structure of the center electrode such as a copper core, etc.
    • Relative position of the insulator tip to the end of the shell (projection)


    The major structural difference affecting the heat rating is the length of the insulator nose. A hot type spark plug has a longer insulator nose. The insulator nose of a hotter spark plug has a longer distance between the firing tip of the insulator, and the point where insulator meets the metal shell. Therefore, the path for the dissipation of heat from the insulator nose to the cylinder head is longer and the firing end stays hotter. The insulator nose of a hotter spark plug also has a greater surface area that is exposed to more of the ignited gases and is easily heated to higher temperatures. A colder spark plug functions in an opposite manner.

    The heat range must be carefully selected for proper spark plug thermal performance. If the heat range is not optimal, then serious trouble can be the result. The optimal firing end temperature is approximately between 500°C (932°F) and 800°C (1472°F). The two most common causes of spark plug problems are carbon fouling (< 450°C) and overheating (> 800°C).

    Causes of Carbon Fouling:

    • Continuous low speed driving and/or short trips
    • Spark plug heat range too cold
    • Air-fuel mixture too rich
    • Reduced compression and oil usage due to worn piston rings / cylinder walls
    • Over-retarded ignition timing
    • Ignition system deterioration


    Pre-delivery fouling

    Carbon fouling occurs when the spark plug firing end does not reach the self-cleaning temperature of approximately 450°C (842°F). Carbon deposits will begin to burn off from the insulator nose when the self-cleaning temperature is reached. When the heat range is too cold for the engine speed, the firing end temperature will stay below 450°C and carbon deposits will accumulate on the insulator nose. This is called carbon fouling. When enough carbon accumulates, the spark will travel the path of least resistance over the insulator nose to the metal shell instead of jumping across the gap. This usually results in a misfire and further fouling.

    If the selected spark plug heat range is too cold, the spark plug may begin to foul when the engine speed is low or when operating in cold conditions with rich air-fuel mixtures. In some cases, the insulator nose can usually be cleaned by operating the engine at higher speeds in order to reach the self-cleaning temperature. If the spark plug has completely fouled, and the engine will not operate correctly, the spark plug may need to be cleaned / replaced and the fouling cause identified.

    Causes of Overheating:
    • Spark plug heat range too hot
    • Insufficient tightening torque and/or no gasket
    • Over-advanced ignition timing
    • Fuel octane rating too low (knock is present)
    • Excessively lean air-fuel mixture
    • Excessive combustion chamber deposits
    • Continuous driving under excessively heavy load
    • Insufficient engine cooling or lubrication


    The most serious result of selecting a heat range that is too hot is overheating. Overheating will cause the electrodes to wear quickly and can lead to pre-ignition. Pre-ignition occurs when the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a hot object/area in the combustion chamber before the timed spark event occurs. When the spark plug firing end (tip) temperature exceeds 800°C, pre-ignition originating from the overheated insulator ceramic can occur. Pre-ignition will dramatically raise the cylinder temperature and pressure and can cause serious and expensive engine damage. When inspecting a spark plug that has experienced overheating or pre-ignition, blistering on the ceramic insulator and/or melted electrodes can sometimes be found.

    As a general guideline, among identical spark plug types, the difference in tip temperature from one heat range to the next is approximately 70°C to 100°C.



    Some factors to consider in selecting the proper heat range spark plug

    There are many external influences that can affect the operating temperature of a spark plug. The following is a brief list to consider in avoiding reduced performance and/or expensive engine damage.

    • Engine Speed and Load

    If the engine is to be operated at high RPM, under a heavy load, or at high temperatures for long periods a colder heat range may be needed.
    Conversely, if the engine is to be operated at low speeds or at low temperatures for long periods, a hotter heat range might be needed to prevent fouling.

    • Air-Fuel Mixture

    Excessively rich air-fuel mixtures can cause the plug tip temperatures to decrease and carbon deposits to accumulate, possibly causing fouling and misfires.
    Excessively lean air-fuel mixtures can cause the cylinder and plug temperatures to increase, possibly resulting in knock and/or pre-ignition. This may cause damage to the spark plug and/or seriously damage the engine.
    If an air-fuel ratio meter or gas analyzer is not available, it will be necessary to visually inspect the spark plugs frequently during the tuning process to determine the proper air-fuel mixture.

    • Fuel Type / Quality

    Low quality and/or low octane fuel can cause knock which will elevate cylinder temperatures. The increased cylinder temperature will cause the temperature of the combustion chamber components (spark plug, valves, piston, etc.) to rise, and will lead to pre-ignition if the knock is uncontrolled.
    When using an ethanol blend fuel with high ethanol content in high performance applications, a colder heat range may be necessary. The spark timing can be advanced further because ethanol blend fuel has a higher resistance to knock (higher octane). Due to the decreased knock, there will be less audible “warning” from knock before the spark plug overheats and pre-ignites.
    Some types of fuel additives in lower quality fuels can cause spark plug deposits that can lead to misfires, pre-ignition, etc.

    • Ignition Timing

    Advancing ignition timing by 10° will cause the spark plug tip temperature to increase by approximately 70° to 100°C.
    A colder heat range spark plug may be necessary if the ignition timing has been advanced to near the knock level. Higher cylinder temperatures near the knock level will bring the spark plug firing end temperature closer to the pre-ignition range.

    • Compression Ratio

    Significantly increasing the static/dynamic compression ratio will increase cylinder pressures and the octane requirement of the engine. Knock may occur more easily. If the engine is operated near the knock level, a colder heat range spark plug may be necessary due to the resulting increased cylinder temperatures.

    • Forced Induction (Turbocharging, Supercharging)

    A colder heat range spark plug may be necessary due to the increased cylinder temperature as boost pressure (manifold pressure) and subsequent cylinder pressure and temperature increase.

    • Ambient Air Temperature / Humidity

    As the air temperature or humidity decreases, the air density increases, requiring a richer air-fuel mixture. If the air-fuel mixture is not properly richened, and the mixture is too lean, higher cylinder pressures / temperatures, knocking, and the subsequent increase in the spark plug tip temperatures can result.
    As the air temperature or humidity increases, the air density decreases, requiring a leaner air-fuel mixture. If the air-fuel mixture is too rich, decreased performance and/or carbon fouling can result.

    • Barometric Pressure / Altitude

    Air (atmospheric) pressure and cylinder pressure decrease as altitude increases. As a result, spark plug tip temperature will also decrease.
    Fouling can occur more easily if the air-fuel mixture is not adjusted to compensate for the altitude. Higher altitude = less air = less fuel.

    Types of Abnormal Combustion

    • Pre-ignition

    Pre-ignition occurs when the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a hot object / area in the combustion chamber before the timed spark event occurs.
    When the spark plug firing end (tip) temperature exceeds 800°C, pre-ignition originating from the overheated insulator ceramic can occur.
    Is most often caused by the wrong (too hot) heat range spark plug, and/or over-advanced ignition timing. An improperly installed (insufficient torque) spark plug can also result in pre-ignition due to inadequate heat transfer.
    Pre-ignition will dramatically raise the cylinder temperature and pressure and can melt and hole pistons, burn valves, etc.

    • Knock

    Occurs when part of the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber away from the spark plug is spontaneously ignited by the pressure from a flame front originating from the spark plug. The two colliding flame fronts contribute to the “knocking” sound.
    Knock occurs more frequently when using low octane fuel. Low octane fuel has a low resistance to knock (low resistance to ignition)
    Knock is related to ignition timing. (Knock is sometimes referred to as “Spark-knock”.) Retarding the ignition timing will reduce knock.
    Heavy knock often leads to pre-ignition.
    Heavy knock can cause breakage and/or erosion of combustion chamber components.
    Knock is sometimes referred to as “ping” or “detonation”.

    • Misfires

    A misfire occurs when the spark travels the path of least resistance instead of jumping across the gap. Misfires can be caused by the following:

    • Carbon fouling


    1. Worn or deteriorated ignition system components
    2. Too large of gap size
    3. Spark timing excessively advanced or retarded
    4. Damaged spark plugs (cracked insulator, melted electrodes, etc)
    5. Mismatched ignition system components (plug resistance / wire resistance, ignition coils / igniter modules, etc.)
    6. Insufficient coil primary and/or secondary voltage – voltage required to jump the spark plug gap higher than coil output


    A. Installing Spark Plugs

    Torque is one of the most critical aspects of spark plug installation. Torque directly affects the spark plugs' ability to transfer heat out of the combustion chamber. A spark plug that is under-torqued will not be fully seated on the cylinder head, hence heat transfer will be slowed. This will tend to elevate combustion chamber temperatures to unsafe levels, and pre-ignition and detonation will usually follow. Serious engine damage is not far behind.

    An over-torqued spark plug can suffer from severe stress to the Metal Shell which in turn can distort the spark plug's inner gas seals or even cause a hairline fracture to the spark plug's insulator...in either case, heat transfer can again be slowed and the above mentioned conditions can occur.

    The spark plug holes must always be cleaned prior to installation, otherwise you may be torquing against dirt or debris and the spark plug may actually end up under-torqued, even though your torque wrench says otherwise. Of course, you should only install spark plugs in a cool engine, because metal expands when its hot and installation may prove difficult. Proper torque specs for both aluminum and cast iron cylinder heads are listed below.
    Spark Plug Type Thread Diameter Cast Iron Cylinder Head (lb-ft.) Aluminum Clyinder Head (lb-ft.)
    Flat seat type (with gasket) 18 ø mm 25.3~32.5 25.3~32.5
    " 14 ø mm 18.0~25.3 18.0~21.6
    " 12 ø mm 10.8~18.0 10.8~14.5
    " 10 ø mm 7.2~10.8 7.2~8.7
    " 8 ø mm -- 5.8~7.2
    Conical seat type
    (without gasket) 18 ø mm 14.5~21.6 14.5~21.6
    Conical seat type
    (without gasket) 14 ø mm 10.8~18.0 7.2~14.5




    B. Installing Spark Plugs - Lawn & Garden Equipment

    1. Confirm that the thread reach of the spark plug is the right one for your engine.

    2. Remove the dirt at the gasket seal of the cylinder head.

    3. Tighten the spark plug finger tight until the gasket reaches the cylinder head, then tighten about 1/2-2/3 turn more with a spark plug wrench.
    (Taper seat: About 1/16 turn more).



    C. Gapping

    Since the gap size has a direct affect on the spark plug's tip temperature
    and on the voltage necessary to ionize (light) the air/fuel mixture, careful attention is required. While it is a popular misconception that plugs are pre-gapped from the factory, the fact remains that the gap must be adjusted for the vehicle that the spark plug is intended for. Those with modified engines must remember that a modified engine with higher compression or forced induction will typically require a smaller gap settings (to ensure ignitability
    in these denser air/fuel mixtures). As a rule, the more power you are making, the smaller the gap you will need.

    A spark plug's voltage requirement is directly proportionate to the gap size. The larger the gap, the more voltage is needed to bridge the gap. Most experienced tuners know that opening gaps up to present a larger spark to the air/fuel mixture maximizes burn efficiency. It is for this reason that most racers add high power ignition systems. The added power allows them to open the gap yet still provide a strong spark.

    With this mind, many think the larger the gap the better. In fact, some aftermarket ignition systems boast that their systems can tolerate gaps that are extreme. Be wary of such claims. In most cases, the largest gap you can run may still be smaller than you think.



    D. Indexing

    This is for racers only !!
    Indexing refers to a process whereby auxiliary washers of varying thickness are placed under the spark plug's shoulder so that when the spark plug is tightened, the gap will point in the desired direction.

    However, without running an engine on a dyno, it is impossible to gauge which type of indexing works best in your engine. While most engines like the spark plug's gap open to the intake valve, there are still other combinations that make more power with the gap pointed toward the exhaust valve.

    In any case, engines with indexed spark plugs will typically make only a few more horsepower, typically less than 1% of total engine output. For a 500hp engine, you'd be lucky to get 5hp. While there are exceptions, the bottom line is that without a dyno, gauging success will be difficult.



    E. Heat Range Selection

    Let's make this really simple: when you need your engine to run a little cooler, run a colder plug. When you need your engine to run a little hotter, run a hotter spark plug. However, NGK strongly cautions people that going
    to a hotter spark plug can sometimes mask a serious symptom of another problem that can lead to engine damage. Be very careful with heat ranges. Seek professional guidance if you are unsure.

    With modified engines (those engines that have increased their compression) more heat is a by-product of the added power that normally comes with increased compression. In short, select one heat range colder for every 75-100 hp you add, or when you significantly raise compression. Also remember to retard the timing a little and to increase fuel enrichment and octane. These tips are critical when adding forced induction (turbos, superchargers or nitrous kits), and failure to address ALL of these areas
    will virtually guarantee engine damage.

    An engine that has poor oil control can sometimes mask the symptom temporarily by running a slightly hotter spark plug. While this is a "Band-Aid" approach, it is one of the only examples of when and why one would select
    a hotter spark plug.



    F. Using "Racing" Spark Plugs

    Be cautious! In reality, most "racing" spark plugs are just colder heat ranges of the street versions of the spark plug. They don't provide any more voltage to the spark plug tip! Their internal construction is no different (in NGK's case, as all of our spark plugs must conform to the same level of quality controls) than most standard spark plugs.

    There are some exceptions, though. Extremely high compression cars or those running exotic fuels will have different spark plug requirements and hence spark plugs that are well-suited for these requirements. They are classified as "specialized spark plugs for racing applications". Some are built with precious metal alloy tips for greater durability and the ability to fire in denser or leaner air/fuel mixtures. However, installing the same spark plugs Kenny Bernstein uses in his 300+ mph Top Fuel car (running Nitromethane at a 2:1 air/fuel ratio and over 20:1 dynamic compression) in your basically stock Honda Civic (running 15:1 a/f ratios with roughly 9.5:1 compression) will do nothing for you! In fact, since
    Kenny's plugs are fully 4 heat ranges colder, they'd foul out in your Honda
    in just a few minutes.

    A racing spark plug (or ANY spark plug) will NOT give you large gains in horsepower. While certain
    spark plugs are better suited to certain applications (and we're happy to counsel you in the right direction) we try to tell people that are looking to "screw in" some cheap horsepower that, in most cases, spark plugs are
    not the answer.

    To be blunt, when experienced tuners build race motors, they select their spark plugs for different reasons: to remove heat more efficiently, provide sufficient spark to completely light all the air/fuel mixture, to survive the added stresses placed upon a high performance engine's spark plugs,
    and to achieve optimum piston-to-plug clearance.

    Some of these "specialized racing plugs" are made with precious metal alloy center/ground electrodes or fine wire tips or retracted-nose insulators. Again, these features do not necessarily mean that the spark plug will allow the engine to make more power, but these features are what allow the spark plug to survive in these tortuous conditions. Most racers know screwing in a new set of spark plugs will not magically "unlock" hidden horsepower.


    G. Using High Power Ignition Systems

    Many of the more popular aftermarket ignition systems are of the capacitive discharge type. They store voltage, or accumulate it, until a point at which a trigger signal allows release of this more powerful spark. Companies like Mallory, MSD, Crane and Accel, to name a few, offer such systems.

    They affect spark plugs in that they allow the gaps to be opened up to take advantage of the increased capacity. The theory is that the larger and the more intense the spark you are able to present to the air/fuel mixture, the more likely you will be to burn more fuel, and hence the more power you will make.

    We encourage the use of such systems, but only on modified or older non-computer controlled vehicles.

    In reality, computer controlled vehicles do such a good job of lighting off the air/fuel mixture (as evidenced by the ultra-low emissions), added ignition capacity would do little to burn more fuel since the stock configuration is doing such a good job. Older non-computer controlled vehicles or those
    that have been modified with higher compression or boosted (nitrous, turbo, supercharged) engines can certainly take advantage of a more powerful ignition system.

    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

  18. #77
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    Lightbulb FAQs - Spark Plugs

    FAQs - Spark Plugs

    Q: How often should I replace my spark plugs?

    A: Unfortunately,there is no single answer to this question. As spark plugs grow older, they lose their sharp edges as material from the center and ground electrodes is slowly eroded away. As the gap between these two points grows, the voltage required to bridge the gap increases proportionately. Even the best ignition systems will be strained to supply enough voltage to completely burn the fuel. It is at this point, when fuel is being left unburned, that the time has come to change spark plugs.

    Replacing worn out spark plugs with new ones (with sharp new edges) effectively restores the ignition system's efficiency. Misfires are reduced, power is restored, economy of operation is enhanced and emissions are reduced.

    The best guide is the manufacturer's recommendation for your vehicle, as this particular service varies from brand to brand and model to model. In the absence of this information or in conjunction with it, you can rely on the advice of a mechanic who is familiar with your type of vehicle. In the best of all worlds, this would be a mechanic who is also familiar with the vehicle you own. If you find a good mechanic, whether dealer or independent, stick with him. The better he knows your personal vehicle, the better he will be able to diagnose and service it. The end result is very much like a doctor-patient relationship and, in the long run, you will have a healthier vehicle.

    Q: How much of a performance improvement can I expect from changing plugs?

    A: A common misconception is that changing spark plugs will result in a large power increase. In most cases, removing even seriously worn out spark plugs will only result in very modest power gains, typically about 1-2% of total engine output. This could be even less for computer-controlled vehicles, primarily because most newer vehicles have more powerful ignition systems and the vehicle's computer can make adjustments so that vehicle operation seems smoother and more seamless.

    Many people think that simply supplying more spark to the firing tip can and will combust more fuel. What they don't understand is that most newer cars' engines are so efficient that they are already burning all of the available fuel. Simply adding more spark voltage can't burn more fuel because there is no more fuel to burn.

    When a stock or near-stock engine is given a fresh set of spark plugs, peak efficiency is restored. The power gains that come from this restored state of tune are usually minimal. Any company that tells you that their spark plug will provide significant gains in power in a stock or near-stock engine is making blanket statements that may not be supportable.

    Q: What is a "fouled" spark plug?

    A: A spark plug is considered fouled when the insulator nose at the firing tip becomes coated with a foreign substance such as fuel, oil or carbon. This coating makes it easier for the voltage to follow along the insulator nose, leach back down into the metal shell and ground out rather than bridging the gap and firing normally.

    Many factors can contribute to spark plug fouling. The air/fuel ratio may be too rich as a result of incorrect carburetor adjustment or a poorly performing fuel injection system. Worn piston rings or valve seals may allow too much oil to leak into the combustion chamber, leading to oil fouling. The ignition system may not be performing properly. Prolonged idling or continuous low-speed driving may keep the spark plug from reaching its optimum operating temperature. Using too cold a spark plug can lead to the same problem. Finally, a dirty air cleaner can create a too-rich condition which can lead to fouling.

    Fuel, oil and carbon fouling can all be the result of different causes but, once a spark plug is fouled, it will not provide adequate voltage to the firing tip and that cylinder will not fire properly. In many cases, the spark plug cannot be cleaned sufficiently to restore normal operation. Therefore, it is recommended that a plug be replaced once it is fouled.

    Q: Are special plugs always necessary on a modified engine?

    A: It depends on the modifications. The term "modified" refers to those engines that have received bolt-on improvements that may or may not raise the engine's total compression ratio. These can include turbocharging, supercharging, nitrous oxide injection, the use of smaller-chambered cylinder heads, modified piston configurations, free-flowing cylinder heads, change of induction components and/or the use of different fuel types and octane. These kinds of modifications generally require a change from stock spark plugs.

    Modifications that will typically not require specialized plugs (in most cases the factory installed plug will be more than adequate) include adding a free-flowing air filter, headers, mufflers and rear-end gears. Basically, any modification that does not alter the overall compression ratio will not usually necessitate changing plug types or heat ranges. Such minor modifications will not significantly increase the amount of heat in the combustion chamber, hence, a plug change is probably not warranted.

    However, when compression is raised, along with the added power comes added heat. Since spark plugs must remove heat and a modified engine makes more heat, the spark plug must remove more heat. A colder heat range spark plug must be selected and plug gaps should be adjusted smaller to ensure proper ignitability in this denser air/fuel mixture.

    Typically, for every 75-100 hp you add, you should go one step colder on the spark plug's heat range. A hotter heat range is not usually recommended except when severe oil or fuel fouling is occurring.

    Q: When should I use a resistor spark plug?

    A: resistor spark plugs use a 5k ohm ceramic resistor in the spark plug to suppress ignition noise generated during sparking.

    WE strongly recommends using resistor spark plugs in any vehicle that uses on-board computer systems to monitor or control engine performance. This is because resistor spark plugs reduce electromagnetic interference with on-board electronics.

    They are also recommended on any vehicle that has other on-board electronic systems such as engine-management computers, two-way radios, GPS systems, depth finders or whenever recommended by the manufacturer.

    In fact, using a non-resistor plug in certain applications can actually cause the engine to suffer undesirable side effects such as an erratic idle, high-rpm misfire, engine run-on, power drop off at certain rpm levels and abnormal combustion.

    Q: Does humidity affect spark plug temperature?

    A: Yes, humidity does affect spark plug temperature. As the humidity increases, the intake air mass decreases. This results in lower combustion pressures and temperatures, causing a decrease in the spark plug's temperature.

    Q: Does ignition timing affect a spark plug's temperature?

    A: Yes, ignition timing directly affects the firing end temperature of the spark plug. Advancing the ignition timing prolongs the time to compress the burning gases. The pre-ignition temperature also elevates gradually, since the pressure and temperature of the combustible mixture is low before ignition. Advancing your timing elevates firing end temperatures.

    Q: Does compression ratio affect firing end temperature?

    A: Yes, the by-product of increased compression is the elevation in cylinder temperatures. This is why it is recommended to choose a spark plug suitable for your application. NGK Spark Plugs recommends dropping heat ranges and altering Air/Fuel mixtures and timing as needed. It is very important to dissipate the excess heat from the combustion chamber in order to prevent pre-ignition.

    Q: What is detonation?

    A: Detonation is a spark plugs worst enemy. It can break insulators and ground electrodes. Spark plug temperatures can reach in excess of 3000 °F.
    Detonation, in simple terms, is a violent uncontrolled burn of the air/fuel mixture, which occurs when excessive heat and cylinder pressure causes the air/fuel mixture to spontaneously ignite
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

  19. #78
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    Default

    Thanks a lot


    great work

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    Default

    @syedhasan92110
    app na tho sara net hi yaha pakwheels pa uta k rakh dia ha...
    tips and info ma acha hotha agar a yaha pa chalni wali bikes k baray ma koi tips post lkartha na lambi tarangi kanrian copy past martha,,,

    it is extremly bad to post such a lenthgy topics ,
    u should first study them,and post maiun points relevant to local bikinhg,,

    dont mind but speaking frankly this blatent copy past has just spoiled the thread,,,

  21. #80
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    Smile my my dear

    Quote Originally Posted by asjdsm View Post
    @syedhasan92110
    app na tho sara net hi yaha pakwheels pa uta k rakh dia ha...
    tips and info ma acha hotha agar a yaha pa chalni wali bikes k baray ma koi tips post lkartha na lambi tarangi kanrian copy past martha,,,

    it is extremly bad to post such a lenthgy topics ,
    u should first study them,and post maiun points relevant to local bikinhg,,

    dont mind but speaking frankly this blatent copy past has just spoiled the thread,,,
    Salam Brother,
    Its not just copy paste i have thoroughly gone through every article and then posted it. Secondly im really sorry if you find that thing lengthy or irritating to read, i also said that you people can ask any relevant questions here and as far as tips are concerned if you can find time to read out these so called lengthy posts you will find many good and related information here. I don't think so that there is any irrelevant stuff here. Kindly quote that post
    "Sir ap ko plate mai halwa rakh k day dain ge aur batayen"

    comments and suggestions are always welcome from all..............
    You are to ride the machine, machine is not to ride you..

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