In our culture; we immediately label any big motorcycle as "Heavy Bike" which is inaccurate; I think I better chime in!
Sports Bikes tend to have fairings while at the same time upright riding position and the performance leaves a lot to be desired as its not on par with Racing Replicas (Ninja 650R, CBR500R, CBR650R, VFR800, FZ6R).
Super Sport Bikes a.k.a (Also Known As) Racing Replica as these bikes race in 600cc Class of World SuperSport Championship (ZX6R, CBR600RR)
Super Bikes are also racing replicas as race in World SuperBike Championship with engines upto 1000cc (For 4-Cylinder Machines) and 1200cc (For V-Twin Machines) (ZX10R, CBR1000RR, Ducati Panigale 1199R, EBR 1190RX, KTM RC8R)
Hyper Bikes (ZX14R, Hayabusa)
Dual Sport Bikes are basically road legal version of Dirt Bikes (KLX250, DRZ400, XR650L, DR650SE)
Off-Road Bikes also known as MX or "Motocross" Bike which are illegal to ride on public roads (CRF450R).
Super Motards are basically Dual Sport Bikes with big chunky street tires (DRZ400SM, KLX250SF, Husquvarna 610SM)
Adventure Bikes are off-road machines albeit tend to possess multi-cylinder engines (BMW F800GS, R1200GS).
Sports Touring Bikes (GTR1400, FJR1300, Triumph Sprint ST, Versys 1000, Multistrada 1200)
Grand Touring Bikes (K1600GTL, GL1800 Goldwing).
Street Bikes are normally under 200cc and have 2-Cylinders at most (CG125!!!, CD175/200, CB350, CB250 etc)
Naked Bikes tend to have around 500cc to 1000cc Displacement and tend to have at most 2 Cylinders (RE Bullet 500, SR400, GS500, CB500, Triumph Bonneville, Kawasaki W650/800).
Street Fighters tend to have at least 3-Cylinders and have displacement of over 500cc (Z600/800, GSX-750F/1000F, Street/Speed Triple). In some cases, Street Fighters are basically sports bikes without fairings like BMW S1000R & Aprilia Tuono V4R which are based on BMW S1000RR & Aprilia RSV4R Superbikes respectively...
Roadsters are basically Naked Bikes but tend to be expensive, exotic & have good performance (Ducati Monster 696/796/821/1100/1200, Moto Guzzi V7, Griso 1200, BMW R-Nine-T, CB1100, XJR1300)
Cruisers are long & low with seat heights less than 28" and tend to have slow revving big engines (Any Harley Davidson (Except Street & Sportster Series), Kawasaki Vulcan 900/1700, Suzuki M109R/C90/M90)
Scramblers which are basically naked bikes albeit longer suspension and knobbies! (Triumph Scrambler, Ducati Scrambler)
Pocket Bikes are for childern are tend to be EXTREMELY TINY!
Then there are:
Under Bones (Honda Cub 50)... Mopeds, which are basically 50cc Under Bones! And of course scooters...
There're a TON of kinds of bikes; I'd like you to refer to Wikipedia Page of types of motorcycles:
Give it a readout...