European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.
oxic emission: stages and legal framework
The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 fuels for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Indian numerals (Euro I, Euro II, etc.)
The legal framework consists in a series of directives, each amendments to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC. The following is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard.
Euro 1 (1993):
For passenger cars - 91/441/EEC.
Also for passenger cars and light trucks - 93/59/EEC.
Euro 2 (1996) for passenger cars - 94/12/EC (& 96/69/EC)
For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row A) - 2006/120/EC
Euro 3 (2000) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC
For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row B) - 2006/120/EC
Euro 4 (2005) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC (& 2002/80/EC)
Euro 5 (2008/9) and Euro 6 (2014) for light passenger and commercial vehicles - 715/2007/EC
These limits supersede the original directive on emission limits 70/220/EEC.