Those two pipes are a vacuum source for the vacuum solenoids you see, Whoever connected them both together is in need of mental help. The little red thing is actually a filter. It should have 3 ports and one would be blocked. It is used when in the factory A/C cars as it was used to route vacuum to the A/C idle up vacuum pod.
The two green arrows you made.
left side = secondary throttle opener
right side = headlamp idle up vacuum pod
the blue arrows point to vacuum pipes
the secondary throttle directly connects to the carby in the picture
the pipe going to an electric switch and then to the headlamp idle up is just that "the headlamp idle up"
When you switch on the headlamps or the radiator fan kicks on this solenoid energizes and raises idle speed by sucking on that vacuum pod.