Charesteristics of oil depend on how it is formulated by the company. What additives are used in that perticular oil to make it superior.
It does not depend on grade. Grade maps the temperature and viscosity rating only.
For example. There will be a huge difference in 5w30 of liqui moly and 5w30 of toyota or some cheap brand.
In some cases charesteristics of 10w30 of some good brand like liqui moly or mobil 1 can surpaas the 5w30 of cheap brands
So charesteristics depend on the formulation of oil and additives used in the oil for better engine protection. It does not depend on the grade. Grade only reflects the viscosity rating on different temperatures .