Inverter based air conditioners run on full power to attain required room temperature, when the desired room temperature has been attained, they can vary the speed of the compressor to maintain the required temperature.
One advantage of inverter based air conditioners is that they maintain a constant temperature, by running the compressor all the time, but on partial load, whereas non-inverter based air conditioners continually switch on and off, thus the room temperature is always fluctuating.
The second advantage of inverter based air conditioners is that they save power. Because in regular split air-conditioners, the compressor uses more electricity when it is switching on and when it is on, it runs the compressor on full power.
The third advantage is long life of compressor. Because it is not being switched on and off continually, the compressor's lifespan is increased.
The disadvantage of inverter based air conditioner is that it is more expensive than a regular split due to the added cost of an inverter which switches from AC to DC power.