Toyota D4-D Engine
D-4D means Direct injection, 4 stroke, Common rail Diesel and is on all Toyota diesel models. D-4D is a combination of Direct injection and Common-rail diesel injection systems and has been designed to provide higher output power, better fuel economy, lower exhaust emissions and lower noise and vibration than conventional diesel engines.
The Hilux Vigo range is powered by either Toyota’s 16-valve 2.5-litre D-4D direct injection common rail turbo-diesel engine, delivering 102bhp & 300Nm/2,000 or the 16-valve 3.0-litre D-4D direct injection common rail turbo-diesel engine, delivering 163bhp & 343Nm/1,400-3,400.
The 3.0 litre D-4D Common Rail Turbo Diesel 1KD-FTV- already among the most powerful and torquey in the sector - is carried over from the legendary Land Cruiser and offers enormous torque with excellent fuel consumption.
The engine develops 120kW (163D|N hp) at 3,400rpm with torque of 343Nm across an engine speed range of 1,600 to 3,200rpm. Maximum speed is 106mph (170km/h) with manual transmission and acceleration from 0-62mph is under 12.7 seconds.
D-4D actually stands for direct Injection 4 Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine. Common rail diesels inject a fine mist of fuel into the engine at very high pressure. The result is the same power and refinement as a petrol engine, but with better fuel efficiency and lower emissions. One feature of the electronic controls associated with the common rail is that there is no need to wait for glow plugs to warm up before starting the engine. You just turn the key and it fires up immediately.
Toyota D-4D engines are not just noteworthy for their smooth, linear torque, though: that's a characteristic of most modern diesel engines. What D-4Ds are noteworthy for is their unusually high power outputs, equivalent to that of many competitors' similarly-sized petrol engines. The D-4D's rev range is also usefully wider than normal, further enhancing the driving experience.
This modern technology makes use of a high-pressure pump, a common rail, and computer-controlled injectors to deliver exactly the right amount of fuel to each cylinder, at precisely the right timing. It is this exact timing and fuel measurement that leads to better combustion, cleaner burning and lower emissions of harmful substances such as soot (meeting European Step III exhaust gas regulations). And it is common rail injection that ensures D-4D engines deliver the optimum in power and torque throughout the range of rpm, for better driving performance and comfort.
Fuel in the D-4D is pressurised to an extremely high mpa within the "common rail" that feeds all four cylinders (older diesel engines have a separate pipe leading from the pump to each cylinder). The high pressure injection creates better fuel atomisation for complete burning and increased power output. And because there is less fuel wasted though inefficient combustion, the D-4D delivers better fuel economy too.
In addition the computer control unit injects a small amount of fuel into the cylinder just before the main fuel load ignites. This "pilot burn" lowers the explosive force of the main combustion process and goes a long way to reduce the noise and vibration formerly associated with diesel engines. This all goes to make it one of the silkiest diesels ever built.